Xend Solutions

Xend Solutions delivers a curated array of services aimed at supporting the digital fiat economy, including banking, exchanges, and fundraising platforms. These services are integral to facilitating fund transfers and amplifying the visibility and reputation of service providers within the OAE ecosystem.



AssetChain is a specialized blockchain designed for the digitalization and tokenization of assets and rights, utilizing a Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus mechanism with the support of RWA tokens.

In its framework, Asset Chain employs:

  • Smart contracts for the digital representation of assets.

  • Tokens for the digital representation of tokenized rights.

Tokenized rights are expressed by:

  1. Token standards, predicted for

    a. Full real rights (ownership)

    b. Limited real rights (possession, usufruct, mortgage, collateral, tenancy and similar)

  2. Token sub-standards for determination of:

    a. Bondability - tokenized right can be either

    1. Bearer - owned by whoevers holds the token

    2. Identity registered - bounded with specific person / entity

    b. Divisibility - determining whether right is divisible or not, and whether it is based on co-division (actual split) or joint-division (replication and parallel existence of same right)

c. Fungibility - determining whether token is fungible or non-fungible

d. Conditionality - determining a variety of resolutive or suspending conditions related to rights, together with specific event or time-based triggers.

The table below illustrates how AssetChain utilizes smart contracts and tokens to differentiate between assets and the rights associated with them.

Smart contracts

Token standards

Token sub-standards

  • Lands

  • Real estate

  • Movable property

  • Digital property

  • Intellectual property

  • Money, Cash

  • Financial instruments

  • Receivables

  • Shares, equities

  • Entities

  • Other transactable assets

Full real rights:

  • Singular ownership

  • Partial unit-based ownership

  • Joint ownership

Limited real rights:

  • Usufruct

  • Easement

  • Pledge

  • Right to the Premises

  • Mortgage

  • Collateral

  • Possession Rights

  • Leasing Rights

  • Licensing Rights

  • Other Rights

  • Bondability

  • Divisibility

  • Fungibility

  • Conditionality

Asset Chain Rules

Asset Chain is designed to support all legally recognizable, transactable asset types (both tangible and intangible) as well as all types of legally known rights to assets (not limited to ownership).

To achieve that, Asset Chain has been based based on 10 rules:


Rule name

Rule Description


Smart Contract as Digital Representation of an Asset

This rule establishes that a smart contract on the blockchain serves as the digital counterpart of a physical or intangible asset. It codifies the characteristics, ownership, and other pertinent details of the asset into a programmable format that can be automatically enforced without intermediaries.


Token Standard as Digital Definition of Specific Legally Recognized Right

A token standard defines the structure and functionality of tokens to ensure they represent legally recognized rights consistently and interoperably across the digital ecosystem. This could include rights such as ownership, usage, or revenue sharing.


Token Sub-standard as Digital Definition of Specific Legally Recognizable Limitation of the Right

Token sub-standards introduce nuances to the rights defined by token standards, specifying limitations or conditions under which these rights apply. This allows for greater flexibility and precision in representing complex legal relationships in digital form.


Token as Digital Representation of Specific Right

This rule clarifies that tokens are not just digital objects but represent specific rights, such as ownership or access, as defined by their respective standards and substandards. This precise definition ensures clarity in what holding a token actually means.


Not Every Right is Transferable

Acknowledging that certain rights (e.g., personal privileges) cannot be transferred to others. This rule respects the legal nature of specific rights, ensuring that the digital representation adheres to these limitations.


Not Every Asset Right is Bearer Right

Bearer rights are those that belong to whoever holds the token at any given time. This rule states that not all digital rights function this way; some may be tied to specific individuals or entities regardless of token possession.


Not Every Right is Ownership Right

This distinction recognizes that tokens can represent a variety of rights beyond ownership, such as usage rights, licensing, or voting rights within a governance structure, expanding the utility and application of tokens.


Asset Rights Can Be Owned, and Can Become Independent Assets

Rights themselves can be considered assets, with intrinsic value and the potential to be owned, traded, or leveraged. This principle allows for the creation of a new class of digital assets based solely on rights.


Asset Rights Can Be Held by More Than One Person

Reflecting legal concepts like joint ownership or shared rights, this rule allows digital tokens to represent co-owned rights or assets, accommodating complex ownership structures.


Fractionalization of Asset Rights Does Not Mean Equal Divisions

The division of rights into smaller, fractional interests does not imply these fractions are equal or identical. This rule allows for the nuanced and proportional division of rights, reflecting the diversity of stakeholder interests and contributions

Asset Chain Logic - Visuals Summary

Ownership, Possession & Holding

OAE introduces a refined approach to digital assets by clearly defining and separating the concepts of ownership, possession, and holding. This distinction aligns with broader legal principles and incorporates them into blockchain functionality.

To achieve that, OAE recognizes:

  • Full real rights - i.e. ownership

  • Limited real rights - inseparable from specific ownership rights, and limiting that right in some way, including possession, collateral, usufruct, mortgage and more.

Example: John onboarded his entire apartment to OAE, and minted 1 NFT representing 100% ownership to it. He rents the apartment to Matthew and the entire process is managed through Asset Chain. From technical perspective:

  1. Apartment is smart contact linked with 2 tokens

    1. ownership token (full real right)

    2. right to use the apartment as per lease agreement (limited real right)

  2. Both tokens are linked with a so-called token bond’ - please refer to the next chapter for more details.

Both full real rights and limited real rights can be ‘bearer’ or ‘identity-linked’. Bearer rights means that whoever holds them (in our case- stores on OAE wallet) is considered as legal owner. Identity-linked tokens on the other hand have a fixed identified owner (in our case - Xend ID). They can flow around various wallets, but holding them doesn’t mean owning them. This is particularly relevant from a custody perspective - such tokens can be moved to an external vault without the intrinsic ownership transfer that happens in traditional blockchains.

Token Bonding

As mentioned in the previous section, OAE facilitates both full real rights (ownership) and limited real rights. Since limited real rights can only exist atop of ownership rights (e.g. real estate ownership - real estate leasing), these 2 tokenized rights have to be functionally linked, which is enabled by so-called ‘token bond’

Token bond makes sure that:

  1. Any limited real rights are linked with full real rights

  2. Limited right can only function ‘atop’ of full right, but never as stand-alone asset

  3. Details related to token bonds and conditions driving the interlink between 2 tokens are recorded within the asset smart contract to which both of these tokens are linked.

Token bonding is primarily applied to scenarios involving:

  • Limited ownership rights,

  • Mortgages and collaterals,

  • The relationship between ownership and possession

The capability for token bonding is integrated into the foundational infrastructure of AssetChain.

Example: John registers his property on OAE and receives an NFT token representing his 100% ownership rights. When he decides to lease the apartment to Matt, it's crucial for the authenticity check that the tenancy agreement is accurately recorded on OAE. To achieve this, John generates a limited real rights token that grants Matt the right to use the apartment as a tenant, detailing the tenancy's specifics.

This tenancy token can either be transferred directly to Matt, provided he has an OAE wallet, or kept within the Asset Smart Contract's vault. Importantly, the tenancy token is linked to the ownership token through a Token Bond, ensuring the lease is officially recognized and integrated within the OAE ecosystem. If John neglected to document the tenancy on OAE, a credible authenticator tasked with verifying the property's status would notice the discrepancy between the actual occupancy status of the real estate versus status reported on OAE.

Furthermore, if John had taken steps to prevent this verification from being conducted, the authentication process would fail regardless, highlighting the critical importance of accurately updating the property's status on the OAE platform to maintain its credibility.

Multi-level Asset & Token Structures

In OAE, tokenized rights to assets can be re-onboarded as stand-alone assets. In this case, a token representing a specific right is wrapped by smart contact, making it a stand-alone OAE asset that can be further tokenized if needed.


  • John's Equity Shares: John lists ABC LTD on AssetChain, holding a majority share. He, Andrew, and Matthew have distinct equity shares, represented by NFTs. Matthew decides to split his share into 1 million units, re-digitizing his share as a new asset and issuing a new set of tokens.

  • Andrew's Collateralized Loan: Andrew uses his equity share as collateral for a loan. By re-digitizing his NFT share as a new asset, a loan collateral NFT is issued to the lender, which is nullified once the loan is repaid.

This flexible framework supports complex ownership and asset management, enhancing the blockchain's capacity for digital asset scalability.

4 Execution Levels

AssetChain is based on a 4-level execution stack, allowing for the addition, modification, and expansion of asset smart contracts, token standards, and token substandards without the need to overhaul the core blockchain infrastructure. The execution stack (from bottom-up perspective) looks like follows:

  1. Blockchain Infrastructure

The foundation of AssetChain, managed by decentralized nodes, orchestrating the essential blockchain functionalities. This layer includes wallet infrastructure and sets the primary protocols for token transfers, wallet interactions, and the establishment of token and OP bonds. Changes in this layer affect the fundamental operations of AssetChain.

  1. Asset Smart Contracts

Positioned above the core blockchain, this layer focuses on the specific attributes and behaviors of digital assets. It enables the creation, interaction, and event initiation related to digitalized assets, including the minting of tokens that represent various rights associated with these assets.

  1. Tokenized Right

This tier addresses the categorization and limitations of rights that can be tokenized, delineating them through token standards and substandards. It provides a detailed framework for representing legal rights as digital tokens.

  1. Data Exchange Oracles Executor (Xend Connect)

The highest layer acts as the liaison for external data, facilitating the exchange between AssetChain and the outside world. It includes bridging between AssetChain's internal layers and connecting with other blockchains or data sources.

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